kanha-national-park

Kanha Flora Fauna

elephant-safari-kanhaLargely due to the combination of land forms and soil types and the moist character of the region Kanha is very rich in flora. Kanha has around 800 species of flowering plants, which include 50 species of aquatic plants and 18 species of rare plants. The inventory is not exhaustive, and there is still scope for floral surveys.

Forest Types :
The forest in kanha mainly of two types - sal ( shorea robusta ) and mixed deciduous.
The streams are fringed with thick bamboo breaks and tall mango. The upper slopes carry mixed forest with numberous mahul climbers which are often in flower. These make the tree tops look white in summer.
In middle slopes bamboo grows abundantly under the trees. In the lower slopes, pure stands of sal replace the mixed woodlands. The valleys are covered with dense stands of sal alternating with grassy meadows.

Grasslands
The grasslands of Kanha attract large numbers of herbivores. The grass growth is not thick and it turns dry and coarse, and becomes very prone to fire in the summer.

On river Beds
The grasslands that occur in winding strips along rivers and streams have a very high water - table during the monsoon. These flat, silted beds are locally called bahra. Tall grasses that grow in the bahra provide well - sheltered fawning sites, much favoured by the barsingha.

Kanha's flora, or plant life, is the underpinning of the park's entire ecosystem. Tigers could not live here without prey, such as chital, sambar, wild boar, and barasingha. These animals, in turn, could not subsist without the forage that the plant life furnishes them. Langurs, sloth bears, and birds depend on fruits, flowers, nectar, and forbs for survival. Insects, spiders, and trees have a complex,
Grassland: Chital, barasingha, blackbuck, chowsingha (on plateaux), wild boar, langur, tiger,
wild dog.

Habitation: Used by species accustomed to humans.
The sal tree (Shorea robusta) and various species of bamboo (especially Dendrocalamus strictus) are the most prominent features of Kanha's extensive flora. These species have complex, distinctive flowering patterns, with sal blooming annually over a period of several months and deciduous throughout the year, and many bamboo species flowering only once during an extremely long life cycle that may span several decades.Officials have estimated that Kanha is home to more than 600 species of flowering plants. A list of 50 water plants was included in the Kanha Management Plan of 1988-89 (Kotwal and Parihar, 1989). Aquatic plants such as water lilies are of considerable importance to the barasingha.

There have been various descriptions of the habitats in Kanha tiger reserve. The Kanha management plan of 1988-89, for example, distinguished ten-vegetation cover types within the parks core area as follows. Figures in parentheses give the percentage of the core area for each type.

1.        sal-trees-kanhaSal (defined as a zone with over 50% sal trees, shorea robusta): mostly in valleys (18.08%)

2.        Sal/bamboo: mainly lower slopes (5.07%)

3.        Mixed Sal, together with Jamun, Saja, and other species (13.21%)

4.        Mixed Sal/bamboo (7.34%)

5.        Mixed : upper plateau areas (16.05%)

6.        Mixed bamboo (24.8%)

7.        Valley grasslands (6.4%)

8.        Dadar (plateau) grasslands (2.61%)

9.        (2.88%)

10.    Agriculture and human habitation (3.5%)

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